Friday, November 18, 2005


Irish  Cluain Meala  municipal borough and seat of Tipperary South Riding, Ireland. It lies on the River Suir. A noted sporting centre, it has fine scenery, with the Comeragh Mountains to the south and the Slievenamon peak to the northeast. Clonmel received its charter in the reign of Edward I (1239–1307). The novelist Laurence Sterne was born there in 1713. Industries include the making of pharmaceuticals

Sunday, October 16, 2005

Banner System

Chinese  (Wade–Giles romanization) Ch'i-ping,  Pinyin  Qibing,   the military organization used by the Manchu tribes of Manchuria (now Northeast China) to conquer and control China in the 17th century. The Banner system was developed by the Manchu leader Nurhachi (1559–1626), who in 1601 organized his warriors into four companies of 300 men each. The companies were distinguished by banners of different colours—yellow, red, white, and blue. In 1615 four more

Thursday, July 28, 2005


Also spelled  Arunta,   Aboriginal tribe that originally occupied a region of 25,000 square miles (65,000 square km) in central Australia, along the upper Finke River and its tributaries. The Aranda were divided into five subtribes, which were marked by differences in dialect. In common with other Aborigines, the Aranda were greatly reduced in number during the first 70 years of contact with whites, but

Wednesday, July 27, 2005

Lizard, Locomotion and limb adaptations

The majority of lizards are quadrupedal, with powerful limb musculature. They are capable of rapid acceleration and possess great ability to change direction of motion rapidly. The racerunners (Cnemidophorus) can attain speeds of 24 kilometres (15 miles) per hour, which, in terms of their own body length, puts them in a class with fast terrestrial mammals. A tendency toward

Sunday, July 24, 2005

Gray, Walter De

He became chancellor of England in 1205 and, after John had made his peace with the church, was elected bishop of Worcester (1214). In 1215 John advanced him as a candidate for the see of York against the wishes of the cathedral chapter, and Pope Innocent

Thursday, July 07, 2005

Shiga Naoya

Born into an aristocratic samurai family, Shiga was taken by his parents to live with his paternal grandparents in Tokyo in 1885. In his youth he was influenced by the Christian educator Uchimura Kanzo, but Christianity

Wednesday, June 15, 2005


Also spelled  Carat,   a measure of the fineness (i.e., purity) of gold. It is spelled carat outside the United States but should not be confused with the unit used to measure the weight of gems, also called carat. A gold karat is 1/24 part, or 4.1667 percent, of the whole, and the purity of a gold alloy is expressed as the number of these parts of gold it contains. Thus, an object that contains 16 parts gold and 8 parts alloying